Artificial intelligence is one of emerging and disruptive technology which simulates the human reasoning to AI system. The development and deployment of intelligent machines are influencing almost every facet of our day-to-day lives to help us improve efficiencies and augment our human capabilities. With the advent of Artificial intelligence systems, the risk of crime assessment and judicial system operations are becoming more sophisticated. After harnessing the full Artificial intelligence potential lawyers will be relieved from a lot of dull work hours through the automation of document management and recovery work.
Even though some disagree with the influence of the AI systems on the judicial system by claiming that the machines can’t act from the perspective of the conscious legal rationality and also with intuition, empathy and compassion, but others agree that these emerging technologies are positively consequential to the judicial system. However, due to increased automation, has brought a paradigm shift to the very nature of the legal system. Given Its impressive accuracy and predictive algorithms, AI has been widely taking over and reducing the workload of the judicial system. The judicial system has also raced to reach the promises of artificial intelligence to offer a competitive advantage as well as cost and time-saving.
Some of the Artificial Intelligence impacts to the judicial systems include;
Policing Automation whereby the judicial systems will use some modeling tools like CompStat which is computer statistics for geospatial modeling, this will help in predicting future crime concentrations or what we call crime hotspot. This will be achieved by integration of a paradigm geographic information systems to map crime hence the judicial system will advocate for a multi-layered dynamic approach for crime reduction. Risk assessment automation/ court automation is achieved by the use of AI-based solution risk assessment algorithms. It will help to monitor and analyze the defendant’s profile to assess the likelihood of recidivism which the judge will use to make a decision on the kind of rehabilitation services to be offered to the defendant.
Decision Making- one of key responsibility of judges is to make decision-based on the offender’s punishment post-conviction, Since AI system is a machine uses algorithms which eliminate any bias connected with the judgment-making procedure since all verdicts will be built exclusively on the already existing legal precedent or facts in hand. Judges make all sentence decisions based on the number of sentencing guidelines which depend on the crime severity influenced by the previous conviction and the offender’s inclination to re-offend. Therefore, judges need to appeal to AI predictive algorithms to receive help or support in decision-making procedures.
Prisons Automation new technological tools have been used in the post-conviction stage. AI systems have been integrated into prisons to help maintain maximum security, like the integration of an Artificial intelligence security network which is able to recognize and track every prisoner in the prison and alert the guards if anything seems to be out of place.
The AI system has also played a manger role in ensuring a due process of law like personal data protection, human compliance, equality and discrimination, the presumption of innocence, the right to an independent and impartial tribunal (like the right to change of randomly selected judge), effective remedy and the right to a fair trial. Artificial intelligence systems are becoming more powerful and complex with the new concepts of deep learning with the artificial neural networks and further developments in AI which will reduce the opacity of the current AI approaches in Judicial Systems.